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Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Circuit Breaker Pattern in System Design and Architecture interviews

Handle faults that might take a variable amount of time to recover from, when connecting to a remote service or resource. This can improve the stability and resiliency of an application. Explaining the Retry pattern together with the Circuit Breaker pattern come up often during the System Design interview. For system design and architecture interviews at Google, Facebook, Uber, Airbnb, etc. being familiar with these patterns is a strong requirement.

Context and problem


In a distributed environment, calls to remote resources and services can fail due to transient faults, such as slow network connections, timeouts, or the resources being overcommitted or temporarily unavailable. These faults typically correct themselves after a short period of time, and a robust cloud application should be prepared to handle them by using a strategy such as the Retry system design pattern.

However, there can also be situations where faults are due to unanticipated events, and that might take much longer to fix. These faults can range in severity from a partial loss of connectivity to the complete failure of a service. In these situations it might be pointless for an application to continually retry an operation that is unlikely to succeed, and instead the application should quickly accept that the operation has failed and handle this failure accordingly.

Additionally, if a service is very busy, failure in one part of the system might lead to cascading failures. For example, an operation that invokes a service could be configured to implement a timeout, and reply with a failure message if the service fails to respond within this period. However, this strategy could cause many concurrent requests to the same operation to be blocked until the timeout period expires. These blocked requests might hold critical system resources such as memory, threads, database connections, and so on. Consequently, these resources could become exhausted, causing failure of other possibly unrelated parts of the system that need to use the same resources. In these situations, it would be preferable for the operation to fail immediately, and only attempt to invoke the service if it's likely to succeed. Note that setting a shorter timeout might help to resolve this problem, but the timeout shouldn't be so short that the operation fails most of the time, even if the request to the service would eventually succeed.

System Design options and tradeoffs


The Circuit Breaker system design pattern can prevent an application from repeatedly trying to execute an operation that's likely to fail. Allowing it to continue without waiting for the fault to be fixed or wasting CPU cycles while it determines that the fault is long lasting. The Circuit Breaker system design pattern also enables an application to detect whether the fault has been resolved. If the problem appears to have been fixed, the application can try to invoke the operation.

The purpose of the Circuit Breaker system design pattern is different than the Retry system design pattern. The Retry pattern enables an application to retry an operation in the expectation that it'll succeed. The Circuit Breaker pattern prevents an application from performing an operation that is likely to fail. In the system design interview we can combine these two patterns by using the Retry pattern to invoke an operation through a circuit breaker. However, the retry logic should be sensitive to any exceptions returned by the circuit breaker and abandon retry attempts if the circuit breaker indicates that a fault is not transient.

A circuit breaker acts as a proxy for operations that might fail. The proxy should monitor the number of recent failures that have occurred, and use this information to decide whether to allow the operation to proceed, or simply return an exception immediately.

The proxy can be implemented as a state machine with the following states that mimic the functionality of an electrical circuit breaker:


  • Closed: The request from the application is routed to the operation. The proxy maintains a count of the number of recent failures, and if the call to the operation is unsuccessful the proxy increments this count. If the number of recent failures exceeds a specified threshold within a given time period, the proxy is placed into the Open state. At this point the proxy starts a timeout timer, and when this timer expires the proxy is placed into the Half-Open state. The purpose of the timeout timer is to give the system time to fix the problem that caused the failure before allowing the application to try to perform the operation again
  • Open: The request from the application fails immediately and an exception is returned to the application.
  • Half-Open: A limited number of requests from the application are allowed to pass through and invoke the operation. If these requests are successful, it's assumed that the fault that was previously causing the failure has been fixed and the circuit breaker switches to the Closed state (the failure counter is reset). If any request fails, the circuit breaker assumes that the fault is still present so it reverts back to the Open state and restarts the timeout timer to give the system a further period of time to recover from the failure.


It is important to discuss the purpose of the Half-Open state during the system design interview. The Half-Open state is useful to prevent a recovering service from suddenly being flooded with requests. As a service recovers, it might be able to support a limited volume of requests until the recovery is complete, but while recovery is in progress a flood of work can cause the service to time out or fail again.

The failure counter used by the Closed state is time based. It's automatically reset at periodic intervals. This helps to prevent the circuit breaker from entering the Open state if it experiences occasional failures. The failure threshold that trips the circuit breaker into the Open state is only reached when a specified number of failures have occurred during a specified interval. The counter used by the Half-Open state records the number of successful attempts to invoke the operation. The circuit breaker reverts to the Closed state after a specified number of consecutive operation invocations have been successful. If any invocation fails, the circuit breaker enters the Open state immediately and the success counter will be reset the next time it enters the Half-Open state.

The Circuit Breaker pattern provides stability while the system recovers from a failure and minimizes the impact on performance. It can help to maintain the response time of the system by quickly rejecting a request for an operation that's likely to fail, rather than waiting for the operation to time out, or never return. If the circuit breaker raises an event each time it changes state, this information can be used to monitor the health of the part of the system protected by the circuit breaker, or to alert an administrator when a circuit breaker trips to the Open state.

The pattern is customizable and can be adapted according to the type of the possible failure and the requirements of the system design interview. For example, you can apply an increasing timeout timer to a circuit breaker. You could place the circuit breaker in the Open state for a few seconds initially, and then if the failure hasn't been resolved increase the timeout to a few minutes, and so on. In some cases, rather than the Open state returning failure and raising an exception, it could be useful to return a default value that is meaningful to the application.

Issues and trade-offs to discuss in the system design interview


You should consider the following points when deciding how to approach this in a system design and architecture interview:

  • Exception Handling. An application invoking an operation through a circuit breaker must be prepared to handle the exceptions raised if the operation is unavailable. The way exceptions are handled will be application specific. For example, an application could temporarily degrade its functionality, invoke an alternative operation to try to perform the same task or obtain the same data, or report the exception to the user and ask them to try again later.
  • Types of Exceptions. A request might fail for many reasons, some of which might indicate a more severe type of failure than others. For example, a request might fail because a remote service has crashed and will take several minutes to recover, or because of a timeout due to the service being temporarily overloaded. A circuit breaker might be able to examine the types of exceptions that occur and adjust its strategy depending on the nature of these exceptions. For example, it might require a larger number of timeout exceptions to trip the circuit breaker to the Open state compared to the number of failures due to the service being completely unavailable.
  • Logging. A circuit breaker should log all failed requests (and possibly successful requests) to enable an administrator to monitor the health of the operation.
  • Recoverability. You should configure the circuit breaker to match the likely recovery pattern of the operation it's protecting. For example, if the circuit breaker remains in the Open state for a long period, it could raise exceptions even if the reason for the failure has been resolved. Similarly, a circuit breaker could fluctuate and reduce the response times of applications if it switches from the Open state to the Half-Open state too quickly.
  • Testing Failed Operations. In the Open state, rather than using a timer to determine when to switch to the Half-Open state, a circuit breaker can instead periodically ping the remote service or resource to determine whether it's become available again. This ping could take the form of an attempt to invoke an operation that had previously failed, or it could use a special operation provided by the remote service specifically for testing the health of the service.
  • Manual Override. In a system where the recovery time for a failing operation is extremely variable, it's beneficial to provide a manual reset option that enables an administrator to close a circuit breaker (and reset the failure counter). Similarly, an administrator could force a circuit breaker into the Open state (and restart the timeout timer) if the operation protected by the circuit breaker is temporarily unavailable.
  • Concurrency. The same circuit breaker could be accessed by a large number of concurrent instances of an application. The implementation shouldn't block concurrent requests or add excessive overhead to each call to an operation.
  • Resource Differentiation. Be careful when using a single circuit breaker for one type of resource if there might be multiple underlying independent providers. For example, in a data store that contains multiple shards, one shard might be fully accessible while another is experiencing a temporary issue. If the error responses in these scenarios are merged, an application might try to access some shards even when failure is highly likely, while access to other shards might be blocked even though it's likely to succeed.
  • Accelerated Circuit Breaking. Sometimes a failure response can contain enough information for the circuit breaker to trip immediately and stay tripped for a minimum amount of time. For example, the error response from a shared resource that's overloaded could indicate that an immediate retry isn't recommended and that the application should instead try again in a few minutes.

When to use this pattern in the system design interview

  • Use this system design pattern:
    • To prevent an application from trying to invoke a remote service or access a shared resource if this operation is highly likely to fail.
  • This system design pattern isn't recommended:
    • For handling access to local private resources in an application, such as in-memory data structure. In this environment, using a circuit breaker would add overhead to your system.
    • As a substitute for handling exceptions in the business logic of your applications.

Discussing the the retry and circuit breaker patterns comes up frequently in system design and architecture interviews at Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Airbnb, Uber, Salesforce, LinkedIn and Amazon.